Integrated Flood Management (IFM) is holistic approach derived from IWRM principles that stresses the interrelationship between socio-economic development environmental sustainability and flood-risk management. IFM Plans provide a foundation for flood related decision-making as it paves forward aspects of sectoral developments that must be included for sustainably managing floods. This Tool provides an introduction to the IFM approach and discusses key principles and steps for effective IFM planning.
Flood-related disasters have risen by 134% since 2000 when compared with the two previous decades (WMO, 2021). The insufficient attention paid to flood risk management has resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of people affected and the economic damages related to floods (APFM, 2017).The World Bank estimates that approximately 1.65 billion people have been impacted by floods from 2000 to 2019 (World Bank, 2021). The GWP/OECD Task Force on Water Security and Sustainable Growth estimated urban property flood damages resulted in approximately US$120 billion per year (Sadoff C. et al., 2015).
In the past, flood control and protection measures have been engineeering-centred and largely relying on structural solutions, with little consideration given to the social, cultural and environmental effects of the chosen flood control measure or to long-term economic sustainability. There has been a growing recognition, however, that non-structural elements can also play an important role in preventing loss socio-economic developments from flooding. As such, we have been witnessing a recent paradigm shift from thinking of flood control beyond putting up dikes and dams. The Integrated Flood Risk Management approach is a response to a call for more a effective, holistic, and forward-looking vision on how to manage floods (Tariq, Farooq, and van de Giesen, 2020).