The research aimed to provide a detailed review of selected transboundary basins to ascertain the application of ecosystem-based approaches and draw specific lessons for effective integrated water resources management in international contexts. Selected basins represent Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America, and West Asia, showcasing regional variables and a range of ecosystem service vulnerabilities. They focus on ES relevant to basin management, including climate regulation, water regulation, natural hazard regulation, energy, freshwater nutrient cycling, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, primary production, fisheries and recreation, and ecotourism. The analysis highlights whether or not management approaches recognize and incorporate bundled ES, such as uplands watershed management through afforestation, which addresses the combined services of climate regulation, water regulation, and water quality.

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