Today, 1.42 billion people – including 450 million children – live in areas of high or extremely high water vulnerability. Less than 3 per cent of the world’s water resources is freshwater, and it is growing increasingly scarce.Decades of misuse, poor management, over-extraction of groundwater and contamination of freshwater supplies have exacerbated water stress. At the same time, demand for water is rising due to rapid population growth, urbanization and increasing water needs from a range of sectors. Climate change and extreme weather events are compounding water stress. The resulting impact on children’s health, development, and safety threatens the significant progress made in child survival and sustainable development over the past several decades. It is putting children’s lives at risk today and threatens future generations.This document outlines what drives water insecurity, the impact on children, and the actions we need to take now to achieve water security for all.